Liftoff to Learning: Toys in Space 2
Glossary of Science Terms,
Principles and Mathematical
Equations
GForce  The ratio produced when the force felt by an object
is divided by the weight of that object when motionless on the Earth's
surface.
Gravitational Potential Energy  This is the energy possessed by
an object by virtue of its position relative to the Earth or any large
mass.
Gravity The attraction of all objects to one another due to their
mass.
Gyroscopic Stability  This term describes the resistance of a
spinning object to any torque that would change the orientation of the
object's spin axis.
Heat Energy  This is the energy associated with the vibration
of atoms and molecules.
Inertia  This is the property by which an object tends to resist
any change in its motion.
Kinetic Energy  This is the energy possessed by an object because
of its motion.
Law of Universal Gravitation  All particles exert a gravitational
force of attraction upon each other. The magnitude of the force between
two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
(Note: G is a constant, r = distance between the center of masses for
the two objects.)
Longitudinal Wave  A wave which vibrates back and forth in the
direction of the wave's motion. (Also called a compression wave)
Magnetism  This is a property of certain objects in which there
is an attraction to unlike poles of other objects. Its origin lies in
the orientation of atoms within the object. The strength of the magnetic
force varies inversely with the square of the distance between the magnets.
The magnetic force drops off very quickly with distance.
Mass  This is the amount of matter an object contains.
Microgravity  An environment, produced by freefall, that alters
the local effects of gravity and makes objects seem weightless.
Moment of Inertia  The moment of inertia for a spinning body depends
on the mass distribution relative to the axis of rotation. The moment
of inertia equals the sum of the mass times the square of the distance
from the axis of spin for each particle in the body. The moment of inertia
is greater for spinning objects with their mass distributed farther from
the axis of rotation. Gyroscopes and tops are designed on this principle.
Momentum  This is the product of an object's mass times its velocity.
Momentum is a conserved quantity within a closed system.
Momentum = mass x velocity


Greg Harbaugh slam dunks a basket.

Mission specialist Mario Runco tries
the Klackers.

Newton's Laws of Motion  Sir Isaac Newton first formulated
these three basic laws of motion:
Newton's First Law of Motion  An object continues in its initial
state of rest or motion with uniform velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced
external force. This is also called the Law of Inertia or the Inertia
Principle.
Newton's Second Law of Motion  The acceleration of an object
is inversely proportional to its mass and directly proportional to the resultant
external force acting on it.
Force = mass x acceleration
Newton's Second Law for Rotation  The torque of a spinning object
is equal to the object's moment of inertia times its angular acceleration.
The fact that a torque is required to change a spinning gyroscope's angular
velocity is called gyroscopic stability.
Newton's Third Law of Motion  Forces always occur in pairs. If
object A exerts a force on object B, an equal but opposite force is exerted
by object B on object A. Application: objects move forward by pushing
backward on a surface or on a fluid.
Node  This is a point in a standing wave where no motion occurs
(zero amplitude).
Parabola  One possible path of an object falling freely in a gravity
field. A tossed ball follows a parabolic arc.
Photon  This is a packet of radiant energy.
Potential Energy  This is the energy required to place an object
in a position. This energy is stored in the object until the object moves.
It is then converted into another form of energy, such as kinetic or thermal.
Precession This is the wobbling of a spinning object.
Rarefaction  This is the part of a longitudinal wave where the
density is lower than the surrounding medium.
Reaction Force  This is the force exerted by an object experiencing
an action force. The reaction force is equal to the action force but in
the opposite direction.
Surface Tension  This is the strength of the boundary film at
the surface of a liquid.
Speed  This is the rate of change of an object's position with
time.
Torsional Wave  This is the wave caused by twisting a coiled spring.
Transverse Wave  This is the wave in which vibrations are to the
left and right as the wave moves forward.
Trough  This is a wave valley.
Velocity  This is the speed and direction of an object's motion.
Wave Motion  In a longitudinal wave, the vibration of the medium
is along the same direction as the motion of the wave. A longitudinal
wave is also called a compression wave. In a transverse wave, the vibration
of the medium is perpendicular to the motion of the wave. A vibration
caused by twisting the coiled spring is called a torsional wave.
A standing wave has places where the wave appears to stand still. Locations
where the waves interfere to produce no motion are called nodes.
The frequency of a wave is the number of vibrations per unit time. The
wavelength is the distance between two wave crests. The wave's speed of
propagation is equal to the frequency times the wavelength.
Wavelength  This is the distance between two identical points
in a wave (e.g. from crest to crest).
Weight This is the magnitude of a gravitational pull.
