Astro-Venture  NASA

Educational Standards

(Visit Module Lessons for the specific educational objectives and standards addressed by the lessons that accompany the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.)

Educational Standards List:
2061 Benchmarks for Science Literacy
NSES National Science and Education Standards
NCTM National Council of Teachers on Mathematics Standards
ISTE International Society for Technology in Education Standards


Benchmarks for Science Literacy (2061)

1. The Nature of Science 7. Human Society
  A. The Scientific World View
B. Scientific Inquiry
C. Scientific Enterprise
  A. Cultural Effects on Behavior
B. Group Behavior
C. Social Change
D. Social Trade-Offs
E. Political and Economic Systems
F. Social Conflict
G. Global Interdependence
2. The Nature of Mathematics 8. The Designed World
  A. Patterns and Relationships
B. Mathematics, Science and Technology
C. Mathematical Inquiry
  A. Agriculture
B. Materials and Manufacturing
C. Energy Sources and Use
D. Communication
E. Information Processing
F. Health Technology
3. The Nature of Technology 9. The Mathematical World
  A. Technology and Science
B. Design and Systems
C. Issues in Technology
  A. Numbers
B. Symbolic Relationships
C. Shapes
D. Uncertainty
E. Reasoning
4. The Physical Setting 10. Historical Perspectives
  A. The Universe
B. The Earth
C. Processes That Shape the Earth
D. Structure of Matter
E. Energy Transformations
F. Motion
G. Forces of Nature
  A. Displacing the Earth from the Center of the Universe
B. Uniting the Heavens and Earth
C. Relating Matter & Energy and Time & Space
D. Extending Time
E. Moving the Continents
F. Understanding Fire
G. Splitting the Atom
H. Explaining the Diversity of Life
I. Discovering Germs
J. Harnessing Power
5. The Living Environment 11. Common Themes
  A. Diversity of Life
B. Heredity
C. Cells
D. Interdependence of Life
E. Flow of Matter and Energy
F. Evolution of Life
  A. Systems
B. Models
C. Constancy and Change
D. Scale
6. The Human Organism 12. Habits of the Mind
  A. Human Identity
B. Human Development
C. Basic Functions
D. Learning
E. Physical Health
F. Mental Health
  A. Values and Attitudes
B. Computation and Estimation
C. Manipulation and Observation
D. Communication Skills
E. Critical-Response Skills



National Science and Education Standards (NSES)

Unifying Concepts and Processes (UCP)
1. Systems, order and organization
2. Evidence, models and explanation
3. Change, constancy, and measurement
4. Evolution and equilibrium
5. Form and function
Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry
1. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
2. Understanding about scientific inquiry
Content Standard B: Physical Science
1. Properties of objects and materials
2. Position and motion of objects
3. Light, heat, electricity and magnetism
1. Properties and changes of properties in matter
2. Motions and forces
3. Transfer of energy
1.Structure of atoms
2. Structure and properties of matter
3. Chemical reactions
4. Motions and forces
5. Conservation of energy and increase in disorder
6. Interactions of energy and matter
Content Standard C: Life Science
1. Characteristics of organisms
2. Life cycle of organisms
3. Organisms and environments
1. Structure and function in living systems
2. Reproduction and heredity
3. Regulation and behavior
4. Populations and ecosystems
5. Diversity and adaptations of organisms
1. The cell
2. Molecular basis of heredity
3. Biological evolution
4. Interdependence of organisms
5. Matter, energy and organization in living systems
6. Behavior of organisms
Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science
1. Properties of earth materials
2. Objects in the sky
3. Changes in earth and sky
1. Structure of the earth system
2. Earth's history
3. Earth in the solar system
1. Energy in the earth systems
2. Geochemical cycles
3. Origin and evolution of the earth system
4. Origin and evolution of the universe
Content Standard E: Science and Technology
1. Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans
2. Abilities of technological design
3. Understanding about science and technology
1. Abilities of technological design
2. Understandings about science and technology
Content Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
1. Personal Health
2. Characteristics and changes in population
3. Types of resources
4. Changes in environments
5. Science and technology in local challenges
1. Personal Health
2. Populations, resources and environments
3. Natural hazards
4. Risks and benefits
5. Science and technology in society
1. Personal and community health
2. Population growth
3. Natural resources
4. Environmental quality
5. Natural and human-induced hazards
6. Science and technology in local, national and global challenges
Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science
1. Science as a human endeavor
1. Science as a human endeavor
2. Nature of science
3. History of science
1. Science as a human endeavor
2. Nature of scientific knowledge
3. Historical perspectives



National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards

Mathematics instructional programs should foster the development of number and operation sense so that all students–

  • understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
  • understand the meaning of operations and how they relate to each other;
  • use computational tools and strategies fluently and estimate appropriately.

Mathematics instructional programs should include attention to patterns, functions, symbols, and models so that all students–

  • understand various types of patterns and functional relationships;
  • use symbolic forms to represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures;
  • use mathematical models and analyze change in both real and abstract contexts.

Mathematics instructional programs should include attention to geometry and spatial sense so that all students–

  • analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric objects;
  • select and use different representational systems, including coordinate geometry and graph theory;
  • recognize the usefulness of transformations and symmetry in analyzing mathematical situations;
  • use visualization and spatial reasoning to solve problems both within and outside of mathematics.

Mathematics instructional programs should include attention to measurement so that all students–

  • understand attributes, units, and systems of measurement;
    apply a variety of techniques, tools, and formulas for determining measurements.

Mathematics instructional programs should include attention to data analysis, statistics, and probability so that all students–

  • pose questions and collect, organize, and represent data to answer those questions;
  • interpret data using methods of exploratory data analysis;
  • develop and evaluate inferences, predictions, and arguments that are based on data;
  • understand and apply basic notions of chance and probability.

Mathematics instructional programs should focus on solving problems as part of understanding mathematics so that all students–

  • build new mathematical knowledge through their work with problems;
  • develop a disposition to formulate, represent, abstract, and generalize in situations within and outside mathematics;
  • apply a wide variety of strategies to solve problems and adapt the strategies to new situations;
  • monitor and reflect on their mathematical thinking in solving problems.

Mathematics instructional programs should focus on learning to reason and construct proofs as part of understanding mathematics so that all students–

  • recognize reasoning and proof as essential and powerful parts of mathematics;
  • make and investigate mathematical conjectures;
  • develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs;
  • select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof as appropriate.

Mathematics instructional programs should use communication to foster understanding of mathematics so that all students–

  • organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking to communicate with others;
  • express mathematical ideas coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others;
  • extend their mathematical knowledge by considering the thinking and strategies of others;
  • use the language of mathematics as a precise means of mathematical expression.

Mathematics instructional programs should emphasize connections to foster understanding. Of mathematics so that all students–

  • recognize and use connections among different mathematical ideas;
  • understand how mathematical ideas build on one another to produce a coherent whole;
  • recognize, use, and learn about mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

Mathematics instructional programs should emphasize mathematical representations to foster understanding of mathematics so that all students–

  • create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas;
  • develop a repertoire of mathematical representations that can be used purposefully, flexibly, and appropriately;
  • use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.



International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Standards

1. Basic operations and concepts

  • Students demonstrate a sound understanding of the nature and operation of technology system.
  • Students are proficient in the use of technology.

2. Social, ethical, and human issues

  • Students understand the ethical, cultural and societal issues related to technology.
  • Students practice responsible use of technology systems, information and software.
  • Students develop positive attitudes toward technology uses that support lifelong learning, collaboration, personal pursuits and productivity.

3. Technology productivity tools

  • Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity and promote creativity.
  • Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications and produce other creative works.

4. Technology communications tools

  • Students use telecommunications to collaborate, publish and interact with peers, experts and other audiences.
  • Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.

5. Technology research tools

  • Students use technology to locate, evaluate and collect information from a variety of sources.
  • Students use technology tools to process data and report results.
  • Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

6. Technology problem-solving and decision making tools

  • Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.
  • Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world.