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Mars Team Online WebChat

Date: August 18, 1997

Featuring: Mike Mellon
Planetary Geologist, Pathfinder & Mars Global Surveyor
University of Colorado, Boulder


Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 9:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Today's WebChat with planetary geologist Mike Mellon will begin in about 40 minutes-- 10 a.m., Pacific Daylight Time. Be sure to read Mike's bio before the chat at: button

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good morning Sandy and Mike!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning Stephanie! Glad you're here; looks like you're the first! We'll start at about 10:05.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sandy, glad to be here.

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 9:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi Sandy, I am working with a group of educators at CASM. May they all log on with our ID and password?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: NO!!! I only have room for 25 usernames/passwords in the chat room! Pick one or two folks to type in the questions. Otherwise the chatroom will be flooded. Thanks very much :-)

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
OK. Thanks.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: There are already 25 folks registered for this chat. That's the reason why I can't let everyone in your group participate.

Catherin/Victoria, BC: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi All... I'm glad to be here!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello Catherin. Glad you made it to our chat today!

Scott/Moore: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello Mike and Sandy.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Welcome Scott: We'll be starting momentarily...

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: WELCOME to today's chat with Mike Mellon! Mike is a planetary geologist. His work focuses primarily on studying martian geology and climate, including, as a central link between these two, water. In his work, Mike investigates where water on Mars could be located and what geologic evidence can tell us about the planetwide distribution of water. Mike also studies how water is related to the martian climate and how the climate changes over time.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi everyone! I'm here now and ready to answer questions.

Catherin/Victoria,: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
If I was to arrive on Mars with a container of H2O, and pour the contents to the ground, what would happen? Would the water vapourize, pool on the ground, freeze? sink into the sand?

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there erosion on mars now. How often does it turn the regoligth over? Does it sculpt rocks?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: There is going to be some erosion on Mars caused by wind blown sand and frost, but the rate is unknown at this time. It is probably much lower than on Earth.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: As for turning over the regolith, meteorite impacts are probably much more efficient. This process is called impact gardening.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: Sculpting rocks is possible, particularly from the windblown sand. Some scientists have suggested that the small holes and rocks we see on surface rocks could have been caused by this process.

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Are there visible micometerorite impacts being found on the rocks examined. Are glass spheres being found in the soil?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: The image resolution of cameras on the mars surface is not good enough to find micrometeorite impacts. However, the atmosphere, as thin as it is, is thick enough to slow very small meteors so they would not cause much damage to the surface.

Catherin/Victoria,: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
I've heard that comets disperse H2O into Earth's atmosphere. Is this enough to change the apparent constant volume of water on the Earth over time?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Catherin: The addition of water to the Earth (or any planet) by comets is a new topic of debate among scientists. Previously we thought that the water on the surface of the Earth came from its interior. Now it may be that some of much of the water has come from comets. How much exactly it still being studied.

Ehor, Edmonton: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Does Mars have a magnetic pole like earth?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Ehor: The magnetic field of Mars is extremely weak at best, unlike Earth's which is relatively strong. It may be that the small magnetic field we do measure at Mars is do to the surface rocks, instead of originating at the core like Earth. We need to send more sensitive instruments to Mars to better understand this.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Ehor, I'm from Edmonton too!!!

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is the water potable on Mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: All the water on the surface of Mars right now is frozen. If you melt it it might be a bit too salty to drink, and is likely to contain lots of dust. If the salt is not too concentrated, it could be filtered.

Mike. Haines Middle school: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi

Scott/Moore: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Someone just asked what would happen to a glass of water poured on the Mars surface. I calculated that at 6-8 miilibars pressure, water would boil at minus 20 Fahrenheit. Is this close? I have noticed that some days the temperature does reach above minus 20 F, so then the water would boil off.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scott: Yes, the glass of water would boil then just evaporate off as it was freezing. Weird huh. The mars atmosphere is very dry and even at the warmer temperatures the water would not remain.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Does any of the other rocks have quartz like Barnacle Bill?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Stephanie: I don't know about quartz in the rocks at the Pathfinder landing site. The only place I know to find late breaking information like that is the Pathfinder web page.

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sandy, May I change the name of our group? It should read Capital Area Math and Sci. Center.

roger/elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What are the temperature extremes on the planet?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT).
Roger: The average temperature on Mars is -70 degrees centegrade. The extremes are about -125 centegrade at the poles at night (cold enough to start condensing some of the atmospheric carbon dioxide). And at the equator at noon in the summer it can get up to about 30 centegrade. These are ground temperatures. The atmosphere can be a little warmer of colder.

Bojan: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good day!

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike, How did they know that the "Martian" Meteorite found on earth with evidence of life on Mars, was from Mars?

Ehor, Edmonton: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Previous earth based measurements seemed to indicate that Mars emits more heat than it receives from the sun, has this been verified? If there is extra heat, where does it come from?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Ehor: I have not heard before that Mars emits more energy than it receives. If it does it would be very little and it would come from the deep interior of the planet. Currently I don't think our measurements are good enough to detect it.

Bojan: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What are the biggest differences between Earth rocks and Mars rocks?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bojan: The biggest difference between Earth rocks and Mars rocks are that Mars rocks are on Mars. So far they seem rather similar.

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mars, Do the polar "ice caps" show change with the seasons?

Scott/Moore: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Regarding the atmospheric pressure on the surface, current readings indicate a dialy cycle between 6.5 millibars and 6.9 millibars. A 1976 Viking report had indicated 7.7 millibars. Is this a significant change over 21 years? Is this a gradual change or just temporary?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scott: The Viking pressure measurements are from different altitudes on Mars, accounting for some of the pressure difference. Also there is a large seasonal cycle. It's too soon to say if there is a long-term trend.

Catherin/Victoria,: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What are those bright white areas at the top of twin peaks. re: super-res-1.jpg?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Catherin: I don't about the specific image. I have heard a suggestion that the bright areas on the "twin peaks" on Mars are some sort of frost, but I don't believe that because it is just too warm and dry at the landing site. It is most likely a bright colored rock or soil.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Where is the rover now? About how many degrees angle is the 18 metre hill that Sojourner will climb?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Stephanie: The rover has been operating on the west side of the spacecraft. I don't have any information about the plans for climbing an 18-meter hill.

mike.: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
are liquids solids in space

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike: Whether something is liquid or solid mainly depends on the temperature. Whether it is stable depends also on the pressure. Water in space could be a liquid but it will rapidly evaporate and freeze.

Catherin/Victoria,: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
If we sent a robot to a comet would we learn more about water?

Scott/Moore: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
You say that the water is frozen. At the low pressure, does it sublime when heated?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scott: Frozen water on Mars will sublime if the air is dry enough. If it is heated it will sublime faster. Keep in mind that the 6 millibar pressure on Mars is mostly carbon dioxide. There is very little water vapor.

Tim M/Elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi Sandy and Mike - We're a group of teachers from Elgin, IL participating in a technology workshop. We appreciate the chance to join in this session.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
WELCOME Tim M and your group of teachers in Elgin. We're glad you could make it today :-)

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike, When is the most likely year for a human mission to mars? Would you like to go? What type of expertise would the Astronauts have to have? What experiments would you like to see done by astronauts on mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: Given current NASA funding levels, it will be many years before we go to Mars. I think we will eventually go, but we need to go back to the moon and permanently in earth orbit first. Do I want to go? I don't know. Yes for the eventure, but no for the isolation, I guess.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Central Michigan: Since I study permafrost on Mars I would like to see mars astronauts study the surface geology and ground ice. Maybe measuring subsurface temperatures would be a good first step.

Catherin/Victoria,: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What can the rocks at the landing sight tell us about the salinity of the floods?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Catherin: The floods were a very long time ago on Mars and the condition of the salts on the rocks and in the soil is porbably a reflection ofmore recent geologic events, such as recent climate cycles. That's my opinion.

Ehor, Edmonton: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Awhile back I read a book by Immanuel Velikovsky "Worlds in Collision" who tried to connect ancient disaster legends with cosmic events. From his work, he deduced that Venus was a passing comet that colided with Mars. This caused Mars to orbit so close to earth, that an exchange of gasses may have occurred. Velikovsky surmised that if this indeed did happen, a study of the composition of rare gasses (Ar,Ne,Xe,He,Kr) on both planets should either confirm or deny that such an exchange did occur. Any thoughts of looking into this from the current Mars site, or future ones?

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike, Wouldn't the salt in water leach out as it freezes?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: PLEASE SLOW DOWN ON SENDING QUESTIONS FOR ABOUT 5 MINUTES SO THAT MIKE CAN ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS THOROUGLY... THANKS :-)

Belding Beagles: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Has Pathfinder been able to find any bodies of water, even a puddle?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Beagles: There is no liquid water at the surface of Mars at the Pathfinder landing site. Not even a puddle. There should be no liquyid water at the martian surface anywhere on the planet. it is just too cold and dry.

Keith, UBC: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you think the focus of the MGS camera system will be stable enough to allow the accurate prediction of the point spread functions for image deconvolution?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Keith: I not am image processing expert. I don't even understand all of your question.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Keith/UBC: Why don't you submit this question to the "Mars Team Online" Question & Answer section. Go to http://quest.arc.nasa.gov and click on the Question Mark icon and follow the directions.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
I've read that the Pathfinder team has a map of Ares Vallis in the hallway, and you've put your names by where you think Pathfinder would land, who won?

Bojan: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
In what ways is the erosion on Mars different from one on Earth?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bojan: Erosion on Mars differs from Earth mainly in that Mars presently lacks liquid water. Liquid water on Earth is an extremely powerful erosional agent and so Martian erosion is much slower due only to wind and impacts.

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike, How much longer will Pathfinder be active?

Catherin/Victoria, BC, Canada: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
In the next 20 years, if we had the will and the $$, could we build an environment on Mars in which humans could live?

glencliff: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi, Mike-I lived in NJ once (Medford Lakes). What was your home town? Mrs. T

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Glencliff: I grew up in Medford, NJ. Howdy neighbour.

Belding: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello, Mike...Are there any resources found in the soil on Mars that would possibly be productive for Earth?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Belding: There may be many of the same mineral resources on Mars that we find on Earth. To know the concentration and distribution we will need to wait for the Mars GLobal Surveyor spacecraft which is due to arrive in a month or so. On the other hand water is probably the most important resource if we go to mars.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: MIKE IS STILL TRYING TO PLAY CATCH UP! WE ARE ONLY ONE QUESTION 45 AND YOU ARE UP TO 76...slow down...

Catherin/Victoria, BC, Canada: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
But I have lists of questions! And each answer adds to it. :-} What's a planet nut to do??

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sandy, perhaps you should only let 10 to 15 people register.

Mike.: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you want to go to mars or the moon.

Scott/Moore: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks for the responses, Mike. I appreciate the answers.

James/Glencliff: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How much was the budget on the Mars Pathfinder?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
James/Glencliff: I'm not sure exactly howmuch Pathfinder cost, but it was actually quite low relative to other past missions. NASA is trying to send smaller cheaper missions.

Irene/Elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there any evidence that would show that a plant from Earth could live or grow in the soil from Mars?

glencliff: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sandy- we're having trouble reading our answers. Are we getting through? Suggested refresh rate? Mrs T

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
glencliff: You're not having trouble reading your answers, because we haven't yet got to one of your questions. There are so many good ones today. We'll get to you soon!

Irene/Elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there any evidence that would show that a plant from Earth could live or grow in the soil from Mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Irene/Elgin: The soil at the surface of Mars lacks many of the organic nutrients that is in Earths soil. Only a few types of plants can make their own nutrients under these conditions.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
When the rover was doing it's wheel test, why was the soil white under? Any idea of what's it's made of?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Stephanie: The white soil under the rover wheels is a mystery to us. I have had many discussions with colleagues about it. Some possibilities are that soil has a higher salt content or is finer particles.

Bojan: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How big are the underground reservoirs and is there any possibility of underground rivers on Mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bojan: Yes there is a possibility of underground rivers on Mars. It is warm enough deep down in the subsurface, but it is not known if there is enough water to fill these possible reserviors, nor have they been measured in any way.

Irene/Elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there any evidence that would show that a plant from Earth could live or grow in the soil from Mars?

Brian/homeschool: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there anything productive to Earth that has been found on Mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Brian/Homeschool: The most productive thing on Mars so far is learning about its climate, which helps us tremendously with learning about Earth's climate. We have a long water to go to find mineral or other resources, but that's a matter of time.

Mike.Haines Middle school: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 10:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you have any pets?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: MIKE HAS GRACIOUSLY OFFERED TO STAY ON FOR AN EXTRA 15-20 MINUTES TO ANSWER ALL OF YOUR FANTASTIC QUESTIONS. BUT PLEASE slow down... thanks :-)

Steven/homeschool: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there any evidence of fossils on Mars?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Steven/Homeshool: We have not found evidence of fossils on Mars, but we have not yet looked. The recent interest in looking for fossils is only now influencing the long term mission planning for Mars and space craft to look for fossils will come a few years down the road.

Stephanie/wongtong@connect.ab.ca: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sandy, too bad I can't stay any longer. I'll read the rest of the answers later. Goodbye Sandy and Mike!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Goodbye Stephanie: Your questions were great! Thanks for joining us today!

Mike.Haines: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Bye

Brian/homeschool: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Are there clouds in the Mars atmosphere?

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Brian/homeschool: Yes there are clouds in the mars atmosphere. Some of them are water ice clouds and sometimes there are also carbon dioxide ice clouds.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: It looks like we've caught and answered most everyone's questions. So I suppose we should let Mike get back to what he does the best! Thanks for joining us today and putting up with the time delay in answering your questions. There were far more than we had anticipated. This chat will be archived later this week.

Mike, UC Boulder: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks everyone. Those were a lot of good and thoughtful (and some difficult) questions. Hope to chat with you all again sometime.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Mike: Thanks so much for all the time you spent with us today! You answered some pretty tough questions :-) We look forward to chatting with you again in the future!

Brian/homeschool: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks for your time, Mike! We had fun! Thanks Sandy, for the organizational skills you afforded for us! =o) Mom, Steven and Brian....homeschool

Central Michigan Math. & Sci. Center: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
sandy, glad we could join the web chat from CASM.

Tim M/Elgin: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks Sandy & Mike - Chat with you during the new school year :)

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT).
Goodbye Central Michigan: You asked awesome questions. So glad you joined us :-)

Catherin/Victoria, BC, Canada: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you all. I looking forward to chatting again. NASA is doing great (IMHO the best!)work on the web!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:25AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Catherin: You're most welcome! I look forward to chatting with you again also. Check the webchat schedule for the next set of chats. I'm really happy to hear that you like NASA's work on the Web!

Bojan: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good chat indeed, Goodbye.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Mon, Aug 18, 11:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Goodbye Bojan! Thanks for joining us today! You had some excellent questions. Hope you can join us next week.


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