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Mars Team Online WebChat

Date: July 15, 1997

Featuring: Peter Thomas
Research Scientist
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York


Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning Everyone! We're ready to begin. Today's Mars expert is Peter Thomas, a research scientist at Cornell University. Peter studies pictures of other planets and satellites sent back by spacecraft. His particular interest is in Mars and how the wind shapes the surface by moving sand and dust, sometimes in global storms, and how the polar caps have affected Mars' geology and climate. Peter will fill us in on the current climate on Mars.

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello everybody from Cornell.

Scott/XXXXX: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How did the volcanoes of Mars effect its climate and could this happen again?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scott: We don't really know how volcaoes have affect Mars climate in the past, though the CO2 and perhaps water and sulfur put out may have contributed to greenhouse warming, or just supplied water for some weahering of roicks and clouds..probably not a lot of rain in Mars' past, unless very very early!

Daniel/Zrinyi/Middle/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello Sandy! We're here, and we're glad to have a chat with you again.

David/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter what about your job do you find most interesting?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
David: The most interesting part of the job is the variety of topics and variety of people one deals with. It's not just running through formulae...it's trying to figure out how fundamentals can explain all sorts of new things you see.. as in lander images.. and dealing with different people trying to explain things from different perspectives...there is a bit of travel, too!

Geoff/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Greetings from Flagstaff, glad to be joining this chat.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi Geoff, glad you could join us today!

Duree Northern Arizona University: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning, my name is Duree. I'm a student at Northern Arizona University. I'm glad to be here.

Levente/middle/Zrinyi/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is the wind structure on the Mars different from the Earth's one?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Levente: The winds on Mars are driven by the sun, and have no effect of condensing or evaporating water (at present!)...no oceans or continents mess to things up, and 1/3 the atmosphere condenses every year..but in many ways it's much simpler...one reason we study it to get the fundamentals.

Dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter : What about the dust storm in the Vallis Marineris?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Dzsudzsi: The dust storm in the Vallis was not too unusual, the canyons help funnel winds and from older pictures it's clear things move a lot there...sand dunes and dust streaks abound!

Northern Arizona Univeristy: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hello, I am Gary I teach a Elementary Science Methods Class at Northern Arizona University.

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Have you seen any evidence of change in climate over time in the pictures so far?

Cheryl/NAU : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Hi! I am Cheryl, a student at Northern Arizona University, working on a teaching certificate.

Daniel/Zrinyi/Middle/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What was the temperature on the surface during the MPF landing? We read different values.

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Daniel: The different values for temperature may be from day-night variations (100 C or more) and conversions to different units.. it has gooten up to about minus 10 Centigrade.. at the hottest time of day..and much colder at night. It's colder because of the solar distance, and especially because of the thin atmosphere.

Lydia/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good morning, I am Lydia Rechy. I am working on my Elementary Ed. program @ Northern Arizona University. I will be student teaching after this summer session is over. I am currently taking "Science in the Classroom."

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning Duree and Cheryl! Glad you could join us!

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
When you say solar heating and CO2 frost are in control does that have to do with the range in daily temperature on Mars?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Laura: The solar heating is in control in the snse the atmosphere is so thin, and there is no ocean, that the temperature at the ground and air responds most to whether the sun is up...it of course does so on the earth, but the atmosphere and clods really moderate the daily changes. The co2 condensation removes a third of the atmosphere at times, and directly drives some of the winds.

Geoff/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Today while listening to the radio, there was mention that the rock "Barnacle Bill" was created through a process suggesting differing weather conditions, Do you think that the mars surface is still actively producing such a variety of weather conditions and is just not predominantly evident, or has this activity somehow diminished?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Geoff: Barnacle Bill gets its composition from whatever orginal compistion, and perhaps the weathering...at present weathering..oxidation, water effects, may exist, but would be EXTREMELY slow...millions of years might be required to get a thin patina on a rock...the cold also slows reactions...probably much faster changes in the early Mars when perhaps warmer and wetter.

Scott/XXXXX: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Could Mars tilt have been changed by the formation of the volcanoes on one side and that changed Mars climate?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scott: The effect of forming the large volcanoes would not have affected the tilt of the spin much, but might have reoriented the planet's crust relative to an interior...might have slightly affected rotation rate also, and tidal interactions with the small moons.

Cassie/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What have you been able to analyze from the pictures sent back from Sojourner? Have the pictures been of great interest to you?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Cassie: The Sojourner pictures are great from standpoint of left-overs from the large outflow floods...but to me also since they show the "local" effects of winds...all the little "tailks" behind boulder, and that they show the same winds seen in pictures of other parts of the planet from orbit.

Ryan: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter: Did Mars lose most of its atmosphere because of its weak gravity?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Ryan: The weak gravity certainly lets light molecules escape..salso, large impacts eraly may have "erodced" some of the atmosphere, but basically, yes, the low gravity lets it escape.

Carl/LiveFromEarth: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
When the Global Surveyer starts its mapping, what wind direction information will you be able to determine both current and historical?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Carl: When we map streaks and dunes from MGS we will watch for changes during the mission: present winds, and for patterns that do not change and are counter to other wind indicators, such as large dunes, erosional forms, clouds, etc...these would show winds changing on long time scales.

Robert/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Why is the surface of Mars red?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Robert: It is red basically from "rust," like Georgia soils!

Kena Taylor, Northern Ariz. Univ.: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What kind of atmospheric gases does Mars have? Does it have any kind of a gravity pull?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Kena: Mars' atmosphere is mostly Carbon Dioxide, and a little Nitrogen... its gravity is about 1/3 that on Earth.

Northern Arizona University: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning! I'm Aurelia, a student at Northern Arizona University.

Greg/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What if you lose contact/control with Sojourner?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Greg: Contact will be lost sometime...on the short scale, it waits for instructions, but now that the basic mission is done, loss of contact would not be a major disaster!

Sudhir/Bangalore,India: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What is the temperature range on Mars? Will this pose too many problems if we decide to set up a station on Mars?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Sudhir: The daily temperature range at most places on Mars is somewhat over 100C; it's not that great a problem since the air is so thin...it doesn't give or take that much hgeat from spacecraft.

Steph NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good morning from Flagstaff.

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you think there is any chance that water is sitting below the surface of mars? How far is the lander from a polar cap? Could NASA go try and change the "dry ice" to liquid?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Laura: Water might be in the form of ground ice near the surface, a few miles below perhaps as water in cracks. The lander is about 2000 miles from the cap at the moment...late summer in the north. Changing dry ice to liquid just requires high pressure...remember we humans are used to low pressures, but CO2 can be liquid at high pressures.

Cheryl/NAU : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter: How do you think the atmosphere of ancient Mars was captured in the rocks?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Cheryl: It's usually hard to keep the atmosphere out of rocks if they are within a few km of the surface...directly into pores, into melted rock (lava) or by ground water if there was any.

Jason/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What results do you hope to get from the space rover?

Bobby/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How is NASA planning on using the information they receive from the rover?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bobby: The rover information will be used for science in firguring out how Mars works, and for engineering, as to how is the best way to explore the surface..in particular, how to go about looking for and selecting rocks for eventual return to earth for analysis.

Ruth/Alle-Limestone: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
I'm an earth science teacher in upstate New York. The pictures coming back from the Pathfinder look like pictures from a typical wind erosional pattern to me. What is the evidence that water was responsible for some of the deposition?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Ruth: Water is thought responsible for part of the scene by 1) orbital photos showing the large channel in which PF landed, and 2, some of the rocks are more rounded than crater ehecta or most winds do; but you are right about the effects of winds on the very local scale features...there are some rough ventifacts.

Lauren/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
If you get positive results from the rover on Mars, will you send other crafts/rovers to other planets?

Dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter : Does the dust storm still active?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Dzsudzsi: I'm not sure of its current status, but I was only a moderate size storm for Mars...more than a small local one, but not even hemispherical coverage.

Lydia/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter: Do you think it would ever be possible to go to Mars, with the type of temperatures that exist there? Would you want to be able to go and do extensive research?

John/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Does Mars have any sand storms? If so how often?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: Please hold up on your great questions for about 5 minutes and let Peter catch up!!! He's trying to answer ALL of them and he's about 15 behind... His fingers aren't cramped yet...but if he types any faster, they may be soon! Thanks :-)

Cheryl/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there a possible chance of weathering of larger fossils?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Cheryl: Fossils might be exposed by weathering, but the likely slow oxidation, and wind abrasion, would be a bit different from our experience on water effects on exposing fossils.

Kurt/SSAS: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How far will the Sojourner be able to travel from its present position? What is its expected useful life in gathering and transmitting back data?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Kurt: The rover has already passed its design life; it might go a few tens of meters if lucky in the next few weeks.

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Please discuss any evidence of climate change over the years that you have seen so far.

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Laura: The upper atmosphere of Mars has cooled over 20 years (images of clouds and radio data); on the longer term, some features look like they were formed by winds very different from at present...evidence of changes over 1000's of years.

Daniel/Zrinyi/Middle/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What was the temperature on the surface in that moment when the MPF was landing?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Daniel: At the very moment it landed...I don't know, but it was at night near dawn, so probably about -100C or so.

Levente/middle/Zrinyi/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you mean, is there a 1/3 part pressure fluctuation in Mars's atmosphere???

Christine/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How do you plan what pictures to take on a mission?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT)BR> Christine: Planning pictures depends on what you want to see most and the type camneras. On MGS the high-resolution camera can point straight down, and thus you have to pick what interesting sites you fly over and time the pictures to get, say, a particular sand dune that if you see it at 2 m/pixel, you can tell if it is fresh, what way the wind was blowing, and if it is covering a different kind of dune. You always build on older data to pick out whwere newer data should be gathered.

Julie/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What is keeping astronauts from landing on Mars? Is it only because of the weather?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Julie: Mostly it takes much larger rockets than what we have, and knowledge of how to handle the effects of 2 years of weightlessness. and lots of money!!

Geoff/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:30AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter: I have heard of plans to send humans to mars in the future, this seems to depend on the ability to create fuel for the return trip from the materials, gases etc. currently available on mars. Does the current data continue to support this? What types of gases, etc. will be needed to return a group of rocketeers?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Geoff: Making fuel there would help, but only a bit...still need the big rockets here!

: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [91 ]
Good Morning Peter. What do you think will be the most valuable information attained from this mission?

: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good Morning Peter. Since the gravity is less than Earths, will it be like the Moon with astronauts bouncing around from lack of gravity?

Dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter : How high is the chance to loose contact with the MPF under dust storm?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Dzsudzsi: The chief effects of a dust storm on PF would be to reduce the power from its solar cells...a gradual effect. Getting blown over is a very unlikely event.

Lauren/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do you think there will ever be the possibility of floods on Mars since much of the surface was created from ancient floods?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Lauren: Future floods would require at least a wramer environment, and time to cycle the water, if any, from deeper in the rocks to areas where it could be subject to flooding...which requires other unusual circumstances.

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What are the two questions and hypothesis you would like to explore in two years when NASA goes back to Mars?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Laura: In two years there will be a near polar lander. I hope it will shed light on what the polar layers are made of, and what the dark sand dunes near there are made of.

Kelly/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Why was the rover sent to Mars and not another planet like Jupiter?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Kelly: There is no solid surface on Jupiter, and Jupiter's moons are much harder to get to than Mars.

Andrew/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Scientist found that microscopic bacteria used to be on Mars. Is this same bacteria on Earth?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Andrew: It was found that there were things that MIGHT have been microbes...not certain at all. They would have to be smaller than nearly any terrestrial life form.

Levente/middle/Zrinyi/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Are the scientist able to make weather forecast on the Mars for the missions?

Max: : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter are we engineering Microbes to GREEN Mars?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Max: I certainly don't know of any microbe engineering for Mars, and there are international agreements not to even accidentally contaminate it.

David/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
How did the Pathfinder stay on Mars after it bounced if the gravity is weak?

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
David: It bounces higher and longer than on Earth, but to escape Mars it would still have to go a few miles per second.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: SLOW DOWN!!! There are a lot more of you on than I handed out passwords to!!! It's going to take Peter a bit to catch up and answer everyone's questions! Thanks :-)

Christina/Jessup Elem: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What types of patterns do you see because of the effects of wind on Mars?

Cheryl/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Why was the Lander only used for such a short time?

Sudhir, TOI: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Will it be possible to have shuttle missions to Mars?

David/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Can any type of life life on the surface of Mars presently?

David/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Do we plan to establish a colony on Mars anytime in the near future?

Geoff/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
David, didn't you see David Letterman last night? There is life on mars.

Max : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
If life is found, what effect will that have on future missions?

David/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Is there any similarity between the Viking 1 mission data and the data you are receiving from Pathfinder?

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
What information will you get from the Mars Global Surveyor about wind and climate of mars?

Scott/XXXXX: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you Peter. You have answered our questions in rapid fire... I wish I had your patience. I have learned quite a bit about Mars from you. Its is a "real" world to me now. THANK YOU!

Geoff/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you Sandy and Peter! This has been informative and interesting.

Trish/Jessup Elem, : . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks Peter. We learned a lot.

Dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bye everybody!! :-]

Daniel/Zrinyi/Middle/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 7:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Good bye Sandy and Peter! Have a nice day!

Kurt/SSAS: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks for sharing your insights and time with us!

Ruth/Alle-Limestone: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT
THANKS, Peter. This was my first web chat. I learned a lot.

Lydia/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you for all the information you provided today!

Carl/LiveFromEarth: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Peter, Thank you from all of us out here in Seattle for your answers. I look forward to hearing more about Mars winds once data from the Global Surveyor comes in. Thanks

Cheryl/NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you for all of the information and patience you have given.

Laura/CMS/middle: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you Peter for answering so many questions. I am glad this mission was successful. Thanks!

Levente/middle/Zrinyi/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Bye everyone! :-) Peter: thanks for the answers. I'll write to Sandy's e-mail.

Daniel/Zrinyi/Middle/Hungary: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
:-)

Robert,NAU: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks Peter! We appreciate your time!!!!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tu, spece, Jul 15, 8:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
EVERYONE: Unfortunately, our time is up for today and Peter really has to get back to work! I'm REALLY sorry that we didn't get to ALL of your questions. But there are far more than 25 folks on so there are more questions than Peter can answer. I will archive this chat in about a day. Thanks to all of you for such great questions :-)

Peter Thomas at Cornell: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Well folks, sorry to have run to a meeting and other chores, but it's been fun; thanks for the interest, and I hope my typing errors didn't confuse things too much! Cheers from Ithaca, NY!

Duree: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Duree/NAU: Peter and Sandy, Thanks. I'm from Tuba City, Az were rover test occured. It's exciting to see all this happen and have my old stomping ground a part of it all.

Max: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thank you Peter. Very informative.

Sudhir, TOI: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
Thanks Peter. Bye everyone!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Jul 15, 8:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT)
THANKS, AGAIN, TO EVERYONE for joining in today's chat! You really did ask some great questions! And I'm sorry that all of your questions didn't get answered!


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