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Mars Team Online WebChat

Date: March 11, 1997

Featuring: Bridget Landry
Deputy Uplink Systems Engineer
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA


Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Good Morning Everyone! Welcome to today's "Mars Team Online" WebChat! We have a very interesting Mars expert today-- Bridget Landry. Bridget teaches computers on the ground to speak the same language as the Mars Pathfinder.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . As the deputy uplink systems engineer for the Mars Pathfinder project, Bridget takes very complex, but general computer programs and makes them understand all the commands that the Pathfinder knows. The people on the science and instrument teams then use this tool to build sets of commands called sequences, which, when sent to the spacecraft, accomplish specific tasks, like taking pictures, etc. I hope you've had a chance to read Bridget's great biography and journals.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Welcome Bridget! We're so glad you could join us today!

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Good Morning!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: WELCOME & HELLO to everyone in Hungary! We are very happy to have you with us again today!

Mark Stokes: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget - what kind of computer languages/programming do you use to teach the computers to command the Pathfinder?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Mark: The language we use is based on Fortran, but has been changed somewhat to suit our specific needs.

Mark: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Thanks Bridget. So you customized the Fortran...how long do the signals take to reach Pathfinder at this point, and how long will they take once it reaches Mars?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Mark: Signals take a minute or two to reach the spacecraft right now. When we reach Mars, the shortest the one-way light time will be will be about 10 minutes, which is why some of the commands have to be stored on board, to be executed when the s/c determines it's time.

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget - Does Pathfinder have sequences stored in momory or do you send commands on as needed (planned) basis?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Vince: Pathfinder uses command sequences stored on board as well as real- time commands. Often we will load a sequence into memory, then activate it with a realtime.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . I have read a meeting about the program of the 1,2 sol after the landing. They changed the program of the MPF. What are the changes?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: We changed many things for the first two Martian days, or sols. Some involved different things we wanted to take pictures of, some involved changes in timing for temperature and wind measurements, as the scientists thought about exactly what they wanted to know.

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you run all sequences through a simulator on earth first? Does the simulator perform tasks at the same time as Pathfinder?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Vince: Yes we do run all our sequences on our testbed/ simulater before sending them to the s/c, and yes, they can both run at the same time, running different things. They only problem there is that we only have so many terminals hooked up to the system, so we can't talk to Pathfinder and the testbed at the same time.

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:08AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . .Hello!!

Colin-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What is the most interesting thing about your job?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Colin: The most interesting thing about my job is knowing that something I worked on is actually going to another planet, that my commands and sequences are being sent millions of miles and executing in a place no person has ever been. Just the sort of thing I dreamt about as a kid!

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What about the computer resets of the MPF? Have they corrected the mistakes of the ACS program?

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How was the landing site decided upon?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: A committee took most of two years to decide on a landing site, and they're still refining it. The site they chose is where ancient flood waters washed rocks from many areas onto a flood plain, which should give us many different types of rocks and soils to examine.

Waverly School: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . We wondered how hard is it to control the rover?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Waverly school: I don't work on the rover, specifically, but I understand that it's not too hard. They take images that Pathfinder sends back and loads them into a 3-D projector. The rover folks then can drive a little rover-like icon through the field and the computer tracks where they want it to go. It's kinda like playing a computer game, then saving the track which is then turned into commands which are sent to the rover. Kinda cool, huh?

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: How long did it take to prepare the rover? Can the rover overturn and what can it do than?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: Pathfinder has been in development for 3 years; I believe the rover is based on a pre-existing design, but modified. If the rover turns over (and it has LOTS of software to try to prevent this from happening!) there's nothing we can do. Its solar panels are on top, so it would die very quickly.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What could you do when the MPF didn't answer the uplink?

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: Which kind of obstacles are dangerous for the rover? What can do it?

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:12AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What a high rock can the rover override (overdrive)?

Mark: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget - what kind of backup do you have, other than realtime commands, should a wrong command be sent or a correction needs to be made?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Mark: We have what is called fault protection, which keeps the spacecraft from doing things that would put it in a dangerous situation. Also, some commands simply won't execute in certain situations (we can't deploy the airbags during cruise, for example; the computer would simply reject the command.)

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: Who will drive (direct) the rover? What will he/she see? Can he/she "through" the camera of the rover?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa: Brian Cooper and Andy Mishkin will be the folks who will actually drive the rover. They wiil have pictures from both the front and rear cameras of the rover, which give them info about where to go, but most of the info comes from images taken of the rover by the lander.

Colin-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Where is the pathfinder right now?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Colin: I don't know exactly, but I do know that it is about to pass up the Mars Surveyor s/c that was launched a month before us. Should be about halfway to Mars.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: What new technological and academic methods had been used at the rover?

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:15AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . Bridget: How long did it take to write all the programmes of MPF?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Dzsudzsi: We started with a great deal of code already written, but we did a great deal of work adapting it. The project has been going for about 3 years, but we're still writing some code, and probably will be right through the prime mission.

Balazs/Zrinyi(Midle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Hello Bridget! You wrote in your biography: Your overseers are imaginary and they hinder you in the work.Tell me something about this!

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [166 ] Balazs: My upper management has a lot of issues to consider besides the scientific ones. Sometimes this and their lack of scientific/engineering background makes them make decisions on deadlines or providing of materials which make my job much more difficult.

Daniel/Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Hello Bridget! I'm Daniel from Hungary. How long does it take, the Hertzian waves to get the Mars? (Excuse me, but my English isn't good.)

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:29AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [168 ] Daniel: Radio waves take about 10 minutes when Mars is closest, which it will be when we land. It only gets worse after that.

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:18AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . Bridget : Why have you programmed the rover in Fortan??

Colin-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [157 ] Why did you choose to work with the U.S. instead of Russia?

Megan Gilliland: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:20AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [158 ] Hi! Sorry I just get here, but I am going to TRY and catch up on where everybody is at so I don't ask a question that has already been answered:)

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget/Have you read romans from Verner?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Zsuzsa: No, I haven't read Romans; is it fiction or non-fiction?

Colin-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How did you get into the space program?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Colin: I have always wanted to work in the space program and when I left graduate school, one of my former teachers worked on the Space Telescope, and offered me a job, which I was very happy to take!

Megan Gilliland: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What is the hardest thing you've had to overcome on this project?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:36AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Megan: The hardest thing I've had to overcome on this project is my tendency to be a bit passive; that is, to wait for people to hand me things. It's very hard for me to take charge and figure out what needs to be done, and then do it.

Levente/Zrinyi(Middle)Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Is the command interpreter in the memory of the MPF, or do you send interpreted commands? (I ask it because I think, it's much faster to send the compiled code...) The other thing: isn't fortan a little bit slow?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Levente: The commands are sent in binary and interpreted on board. This means that we have to use less power to send the commands. RE: Fortran being slow; see my previous answer about available programs.

Balazs/Zrinyi(Midle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:33AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What do you think? Are intelligent individual in the space?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [187 ] Balazs: I hope there is life elsewhere; what I don't know is if we'll find it in my lifetime.

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [179 ] Daniel: I do design costumes for others, but mostly for friends. I haven't worked for movies or theaters (at least not since I was a kid) but I do make skating dresses for a friend who competes in ice skating events.

Wesley @ Maywood: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . hello

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Hi Wesley, welcome!

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Dzsudzsi: Sorry, I don't know what chip the rover runs with.

Jamie-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:37AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How long have you been working with NASA?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Jamie-CMS: I've been working with NASA for about 6 years, not counting the summer job I had at the NASA Ames Research Center when I was in college.

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:37AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How big is the Pathfinder spacecraft?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Waverly: Pathfinder stands about as tall as I do, about 5 feet plus a little. It weighs considerably more than I do, however; we had to keep it under 800kg, including fuel.

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:39AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . Bridget : Which voltage does the rover operate with? And what kind of battery has it got?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [194 ] dzsudzsi: Sorry! I don't know what voltage the rover has; and I know that it has a battery which is charged from the solar cells, but I don't know what kind.

Levente/Zrinyi(Middle)Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What kind of CPU does the MPF have? Are you using ROM memory to store the important informations in? (for boot ROM and other things)

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Levente: We do have some ROM storage, both for critical s/c systems and for critical data taken taken. Sorry! Can't answer about the CPU; not my field of expertise!

Jamie-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How long did you have to go to college for this job?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Jamie: I spent 5 years as an undergraduate, and 4 years in graduate school.

Shannon/5th grade: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you still have the chip off of the Apollo (I read about this in your bio). Did this make you want to go into the space program even more?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Shannon: Yes, I do have that paint chip from the Apollo s/c! And, yes, it did make me even more interested in working in the space program.

Daniel/Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . A personal question: Can you speak German?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Daniel: I don't speak German, but I do speak some French.

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How do you keep things from floating around inside the Pathfinder while it is in weightless space?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Waverly: That's a very good question! Everything has to be locked down to keep it from floating around and the s/c has to be cleaned carefully to keep any stray bit of metal from getting inside, where it could float around and short things out.

Wesley @ Maywood: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What is the Pathfinder made of? Is what it is made out of special?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Wesley: Pathfinder is made of many different things. It has an aluminum framework, glass in the solar panels, and a special composite in the heat sheild. All of these material have to have special qualities to be able to stand the cold/ heat/vacuum/radiation in space.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: The batteries,which are used at the rover have a limited amount of energy and once depleted and cannot be recharged. Why donot use batteries, which can be recharged?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [214 ] Zsuzsa: I thought the rover batteries could be recharged from the solar panels? I do know that any battery can only be recharged so many times. Sometimes we have to make trade-offs, that is, use a battery that might not be able to be charge so many times , but that will survive the environments it will be in, or provide a high enough current. That may be a factor here.

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:44AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you ever work with the Space Shuttle program and its computers?

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:44AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . [202 ] Bridget : What kind of operating system has the MPF and the rover got?

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:46AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you send radio signals to the simulator or hard lined?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Vince: The connection to the simulator is hardline.

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . thank you very much! I looking forward to July 4th!!

Mark Stokes: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget - when commands are sent to the MPF and Rover, where physically are they sent from - JPL, Mission Control, or?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Mark: Commands sent to Pathfinder are sent from a place about 30 feet from where I'm sitting at JPL. They then go to the Deep Space Network stations in Goldstone CA, Canberra, Australia, or Madrid, Spain, to be radiated to the s/c.

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What unstraps it when it lands on Mars?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Waverly: All the straps on the s/c have pyros, which are small explosive charges, which will cut the tie-downs for the rover.

Jamie-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . As a kid what made you want to work with the space program sooo bad?

Wesley @ Maywood: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you ever worry about anything disruptinf the Pathfinder?

Daniel/Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Sorry, but I don't speak French, so I'm staying by the English. What was the last costume, what you were created?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [222 ] Daniel: I think the last costume I made was of a saloon hall girl from America's Wild West time period. It was purple and red and black and was quite accurate; very similar to what was actually worn at the time by that sort of woman.

DianeS-Maywood Center: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . Good morning everyone.

Jamie-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you think that there was once life on Mars? Do you also think that there was or is water on Mars?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Jamie: I do think it's very likely that there was life on early Mars, but there isn't sufficient evidence to prove it. I do think there is water on Mars, but it's underground.

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Can pathfinder question a sequence sent to it?

Wesley @ Maywood: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:52AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What is your speciality in space science?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Wesley: My research as a grad student involved both image analysis (images of Mars' south polar cap) and experimental work (reactions between gases when hit by sparks or lightening). I enjoy the chemical questions in space science.

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What was your most exciting moment in the space program?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . EVERYONE: BRIDGET NEEDS TO GO BACK TO WORK IN 5 MINUTES... JUST A FEW MORE QUESTIONS. THANKS!

Levente/Zrinyi(Middle)Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Are you using any newer, fifth generation programming languages to analyse the datas from the MPF? (for the future missions) Then, an other kind of questions: are you reachable anywhere, after this chat, for futher questions (or is there only this questline?)

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [230 ] Do you think we will ever send people to Mars? and When?

Balazs/Zrinyi(Midle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . What do you wait for Mars Pathfinder?

Jamie-CMS: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Good Morning Bridget and thank you for writing us back!

Waverly: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Thank-you very much. We have enjoyed the chat and the great information and hope to talk with you again.

Daniel/Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Do you like the TV-series Emergency Room?

Mark: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [237 ] Thank you very much, Bridget, Sandy and Andrea - fascinating chat.

David: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:58AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . How long will it take to deploy the Mars rover ?

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . David: The rover will be deployed late on the first sol, if things go well. The actual deployment doesn't take long (less than an hour, I think) but we have to deploy the ramps that it uses to get off the lander, and make sure that it's safe to deploy (there's no big rock in the way, for example) then make sure the rover has stood up properly, before we actually drive it off the ramp.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget: What costume will desine for the landing? Sorry,it was a typing misstake (my English is not very good).

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [249 ] Zsu: I think I'll probably wear my Pathfinder T-shirt for the landing, as I'll be very busy in the weeks preceeding, and the Pathfinder T-shirt seemed to bring us all luck for the launch.

Megan Gilliland: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 9:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Thanks for the great chat! See you next week!

vince/boeing: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . thanks Sandy! See you next Tuesday.

Levente/Zrinyi(Middle)Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:00AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . The bye everybody... Ah, bye Sandy, could you send me Bridgets email address for further questions, I'd be very grateful... Can we ask any questions after the chat, because we can't come next week? (it's too late for us)... bye .

Wesley@Maywood: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Does the Pathfinder ever send you photos of anything besides Mars?

dzsudzsi,Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:00AM PDT (- 0700 GMT). . . Bye Bridget! Bye Sandy! Thanks for the interesting chat. See you in two weeks! Have a nice day.

Daniel/Zrinyi(Middle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Dear Bridget! Thank you for all the answers. Have a nice day!

Balazs/Zrinyi(Midle),Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Have a nice day!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . GOODBYE EVERYONE! Thank you so much for joining this week! You asked Bridget some really great questions! Please join us again next week, March 19 at 10 a.m. PST for Pieter Kallemeyn, a navigation expert.

Zsuzsa/Zrinyi Middle Hungary: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Bridget/Thanks for your answer.BYE-BYE!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . Thanks Bridget, we really appreciate the time you took to answer our questions! Hope you can join us again!

Andrea: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . Another great chat! It is good to be back.

Bridget/NASA: . . . . Tue, Mar 11, 10:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [254 ] Thanks for all the great questions! I had fun! 'Bye!


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