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Mars Team Online WebChat

Date: February 5, 1997

Featuring: Dr. Phil Christensen
Principal Investigator, Thermal Emission Spectrometer
Arizona State University, Phoenix


Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 8:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [9 ] Welcome to another Mars Team Online WebChat! Our Mars expert today is Dr. Phil Christensen from Arizona State University in Phoenix. Phil is a planetary geologist. His work involves teaching courses on the solar system, the geology of Mars, and the use of satellite images and data to study planetary surfaces. In addition, Phil is the Principal Investigator for an instrument called the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, which is flying onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Phil is interested in understanding the early history of Mars and the evolution and current conditions on the martian surface.

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [10 ] Hiya T.S.M. [G] :)

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [11 ] Good morning Phil!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [12 ] Good morning Sandy

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [13 ] Hey Megan! Do you want to start with the first question to Phil?

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [14 ] First question for Phil, I guess. What is involved in *analyzing* satellite images?

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [15 ] Sure :) Just a sec...

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [16 ] Mark, there are alot of different ways to analyze satellite images. The main way is to look for features that we recognize, such as volcanoes, channels, etc. We try to get more detailed and look for things like "how deep are the channels and how old are they?'

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [17 ] Ok, after you answer Mark's question, I guess my question would be *what do you expect to find after you analize the satellite images*?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [18 ] How do know how old the channels really are?

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [19 ] Phil - do you use some kind of magnification to look at the images (as in looking for more detail)?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [20 ] Megan, never really know what to expect after we analyze the images. In studying Mars using images we've found that the surface has many of the features we see on Earth, it has a variety of ages, and once had liquid water on the surface.

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [21 ] "Hi,Phil and Megan

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [22 ] Shannon, the main way we determine the ages of channels (and other features on Mars} is by counting the number of impact craters that cover them. The more craters, the older they are.

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [23 ] Do you think that there might be frozen or liquid water under Mars' surface?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [24 ] Phil: I looked up "spectrometer" in the dictionary so I know what that is. But I don't understand what "Thermal Emission" means. Can you explain a bit about the instrument built to go to Mars?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [25 ] Phil: I looked up "spectrometer" in the dictionary so I know what that is. But I don't understand what "Thermal Emission" means. Can you explain a bit about the instrument built to go to Mars?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [26 ] Mark, we usually use computers to display the images, so we can "magnify" them somewhat. We can only so so far however.

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [27 ] Phil, back to the age of the channels. The number of craters just tells you that a channel is *old*, it doesn't tell you how many YEARS old it is, right?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [28 ] Megan, Yes we do think there is frozen water beneath the surface. We see features that look similar to glaciers on the Earth. Liquid water may be there also, but it would have to be pretty deep (2-4 kilometers) beneath the surface.

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [29 ] Thanks Phil. There must be quite an array of results from your work. What are the end results, such as mapping, analysis of soils and topography, etc.? Is this info gathered into a database that becomes a body of knowledge about Mars?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [30 ] Shannon, Thermal emission means the energy emitted from the surface. The Sun is very hot so it emits light that your eyes can see. Mars (and you!) are colder so you emit energy at longer wavelengths in the infrared where your eyes can't see but TES can.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [31 ] Mark, Yes, we plan to assemble all of our information and make it avaliable. We'll probably put it on CD's, but we also plan to put some of our data on the Web in "real time" so students can see it and think about it as it comes back from Mars.

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [32 ] How come you chose to work with NASA?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [33 ] In answer to Mark's question about making data available so students can see it...is there anyway that we as students can really be involved or help you analyze the data? My class would be very excited to help you out!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [34 ] Shannon, We try to relate the number of craters to its age in years using information we learned from the Moon. There we could count the craters on a surface (like a large lava flow) and then bring the rocks back to Earth and determine their age in a lab. Then we know about how many asteroids hit a planet every 10,000 years and can convert the number of craters to the age.

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:16AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [35 ] Ok, thanks! One other q though, is it possible that there might be life on Mars if there *is* liquid water there - even though it would be very deep?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:17AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [36 ] Kriss, I was very interested in space as a kid and got interested in geology as I got older. When I went to college I was able to work with JPL and got hooked on exploring planets.

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:18AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [37 ] Phil, why are you interested in space and geology? I'm interested in it because it tells many things about the universe and about us, on many different levels.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [38 ] Megan, there certainly might be life on Mars. Biologists feel that liquid water is essential for life. Scientists from NASA believe they have discovered fossils of microscopic life in rocks we think come from Mars, so we may already have evidence of life there. But, we have a long way to go to be certain

Jim/Prometheus Society: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [39 ] Phil, are you aware of any instrumentation being developed that will be able to detect water beneath the surface?

Kelly V.: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:19AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [40 ] I also want to be a geologist and study the plannets. I'm in the 8th grade. By the time I get out of college will there still be jobs for me at NASA? And one more question--what do I really need to study in school to be a geologist? Math is my worst subject I hope I don't need too much of it :-(

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:21AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [41 ] Shannon, we do hope that students will be able to help analyze the data. We will receive a amazing amount of data and it will take many years to analyze. Hopefully, we can get some of you interested and you can continue to participate even after the mission is over.

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:21AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [42 ] What is a astrolab?

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:22AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [43 ] (My room - hehe)

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [44 ] Mark, I'm interested in how the Earth and the Solar System got the way it is. What was the Earth like 1 billion years ago? What would you see if you could walk around then? In a similar way I'm interested in what Mars is like now. Why is it different from Earth? What has been its history?

Jon/Christina Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:23AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [45 ] Has NASA run into any problems on the Mars mission?

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [46 ] Very interesting, Phil. I ask myself the same questions, but you're one of the people finding the answers. You're doing something very valuable here, I think.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [47 ] Jim, I not aware of any instruments at the moment, although people have ideas. The best way is a very long wavelength radar, but that would be very large and need alot of power

: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:24AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [48 ] Welcome Jon!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:26AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [49 ] Kelly, I feel that the opportunities for working with NASA are getting better. NASA has many misions planned to Mars and will need alot of scientists and engineers to help out. Math is important, but not all geologists are great at math.

Jon/Christina Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:27AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [50 ] Do you have any ideas about what kind of life is on Mars?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [51 ] Jon, the only problem we have on the Global Surveyor mission is that 1 of the solar panels is not openned all the way. This shouldn't cause any major problems.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:28AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [52 ] Kriss, I afraid I don't know what an "astrolab" is.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [53 ] Jon, I think that Mars may have had life and may still. It was very similar to Earth - for example it had liquid water at some point. We are learning more and more about life on Earth and find that it can survive in very harsh places. So, Mars may not be as unlikely a place to find life as we used to think.

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [54 ] Phil, do you anticipate a time when you might actually be able to get your hands on some Mars rocks?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [55 ] I just finished reading your bio outloud to my class. Why are you a projfessor AND a geologist.

Jim/Prometheus Society: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:31AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [56 ] Phil, has there been any success in clearing the broken damper arm?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [57 ] Mark, I think I have one in my drawer. It is one the meteorites that we think came from Mars. NASA is planning misisons to Mars that will bring back rocks within the next 10 years.

Christina Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:32AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [58 ] Did you help design some of the Mars Rover?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [59 ] Shannon, I'm a geology professor. I teach geology classes at ASU. These include Introductory Geology, a class on the Solar System, Environmental Geology, and the Geology of Mars.

Kelly: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:34AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [60 ] YOU have your very own Mars meteor? Did you find it? How big is it? What color is it? Is it heavy? What is made of? That is so cool. Do you use it in your classes to teach your students?

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [61 ] Very cool, Phil, on the rocks. I saw a show on TV the other day where a woman was analyzing the Mars meteor rock in one of those cleanroom boxes with gloves, and she said she was pretty nervous about dropping the rock or doing something to disturb it. Is this a concern for you when analying 'alien' materials?

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [62 ] Did you choose to do the Mars experiment or did they choose you?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:35AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [63 ] Jim, I'm afraid the we haven't been able to clear the broken damper arm that is keeping the 1 solar panel from openning completely. Up to now we've been very cautious because we don't want to make the problem worse and we think the spacecraft will work fine as it is.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:38AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [64 ] Kelly, Yep I have one - I bought it from a man in Tucson that sells meteorites. Unfortunately the price has gone up alot since I bought mine because of all the interest in Mars meteorites. It is the size of my thumbnail. It is greenish-black and looks alot like most rocks. I let my students hold it so they can say they`ve touched a piece of Mars

Charlie Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:39AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [65 ] How large is the TES system?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:40AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [66 ] Mark, This rock sat in India for many years before being found. There is no danger that it contains something harmful. Because it was "contaminated" for so many years by Earth's environment, it is not of much use in looking for evidence of life on Mars.

Christina Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [67 ] How old were you when you started studing Mars?

Jim/Lamar M.S.: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [68 ] When I read that MGS would photograph Mars I assumed it would be what we typically think of as a picture. Now it sounds like you are describing infrared pictures too. Is that right and will there be other types of pictures?

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:41AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [69 ] What information will the spectrometer give you?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [70 ] Kriss, I suggested the idea of my experiment to NASA and they liked it. When NASA flies a mission that ask for ideas, you write them up (that part took almost a year!) and then the select the ones they want. There were about 35 proposed ideas, and 6 were selected

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [71 ] Well, I have to go :) Thanks for the great chat Phil! And thanks to everybody else! Bye!

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:42AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [72 ] Phil, that makes sense - Earth contaminating a rock from Mars. But that brings up a question: how valid is the information being gathered from the meteorite found in Antarctica if it has been 'contaminated' by thousands of years of exposure?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [73 ] Charlie, the TES is about the size of a mail box, and weighs 30 lbs. We have to make it small and light so it can fit on the spacecraft

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [74 ] Bye Meg!

SandyNASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [75 ] Bye Megan. Hope to "see" you again next week!

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [76 ] Bye Mark!

Megan: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:43AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [77 ] Thanks Sandy! Bye!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:45AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [78 ] Christina, I was about 10 when I got interested in Mars, but didn't start studying it until I was in college (about 20 years old).

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:47AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [79 ] Jim, Global Surveyor will take "normal" pictures, but it also has an instrument (the TES) that will take infrared images. We've never really had the ability to do this before, so these images should give us alot of new info

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [80 ] Kriss, the TES will tell us what rocks and minerals are on the surface. Why do you think this info might be important?

Shannon: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:48AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [81 ] Please describe the difference between a regular photo from my camera and an infrared photo from tes. Let's say you were looking at a volcanoe. What would the diffferences in the photo vs IR be?

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:49AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [82 ] If you had the chance to go up to Mars would you go?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:50AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [83 ] Mark, good question. Fortunately, the rock was in Antarctica where it is very cold and not much life. The evidence is from inside the rock, so the scientists studying it don't thing they are just seeing Earth life.

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [84 ] Phil - thanks. That makes sense. Kind of a deep freeze situation, plus the evidence is inside the rock, not necessarily exposed to the elements.

Ryan Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:51AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [85 ] How much does the TES project cost?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [86 ] Shannon, they would both look like a volcano but one would see the colors that you eye sees and the infrared image would see "infrared colors" For example in normal light most rocks look grey, brown, black (not very interesting). It turns out that in infrared light these same rocks would look purples, orange, red, etc. So if we could see in the infrared rocks would be much more colorful and we could tell the different ones apart much easier

Jim/Lamar: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [87 ] Are you hoping for generated energy from lifeforms in addition to reflected energy that originated from the sun?

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [88 ] EVERYONE: Phil is having such a great time answering your questions that he has offered to stay on another 15 minutes! Keep your questions coming!!!

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:53AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [89 ] We want to know what kinds of rocks and minerals they are.And if they are harmful to humans.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:54AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [90 ] Kriss, 15 years ago I would have said YES!. But my kids wouldn't like the idea, so I've promised them I'll stay here on Earth and let them go when they're older.

Chauntel Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [91 ] How big is the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS)?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:55AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [92 ] Ryan, it took 40 people 8 years to design and build. That is alot of salaries!

Kelly V: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:56AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [93 ] How old are your kids and are they interested in what you do? Do they think it's cool that their dad owns a Mars rock?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [94 ] Jim, We don't expect energy from life forms on the surface (but we might be surprised). The Viking missions didn't find life at the surface, so if it is there it is probably deep beneath the surface.

Benjamin Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:57AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [95 ] How much space does the fuel take up on the Mars rover?

Tara Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 9:59AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [96 ] Is the TES on the Mars rover?

Jim/Prometheus Society: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [97 ] Phil, has there yet been any water detected at the rover landing site? Is the GMS able to detect trace amounts such as might be found at that site?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [98 ] Chauntel, MGS is a "cube" about 4 feet on each side. Once in space it openned its solar panels. There are two of these, each is about 15 feet long.

Michael Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:00AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [99 ] How much profit do you make off the TES?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:01AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [100 ] Kelly, My kids are 8 and 9. They are interested in what I do but they pretend not to be. Dad's are never cool.

Mark Stokes: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [101 ] Thanks to Phil, Sandy and Andrea for another great chat. The questions and answers are getting more and more interesting, chat by chat. Gotta go!

Benjamin Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [102 ] How much money does fuel cost?

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [103 ] How many years in college to get to this point in your life?

Jim/Lamar: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:02AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [104 ] We are beginning the study of coordinates in our math class. Is there an NASA/JPL solar system view of the progress of mgs and pathfinder? Thank you for this wonderful experience!

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [105 ] Bye Mark! Talk with you next week! Thanks for joining us.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:03AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [106 ] Benjamin, Once the rover lands it doesn't need fuel. It uses energy from the Sun to make electricity. So it never runs out of fuel!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:04AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [107 ] Tara, No, the TES is on an orbiter, not rover. That way we can see and map the entire planet.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [108 ] Jim, No water has been detected at the rover site. It may be beneath the surface. TES will be able to detect water and ice at the surface if it is there.

Kriss/Columbine: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:05AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [109 ] Why do you like Mars so much?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:06AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [110 ] Michael, Since I work for a university, I don't make any profit off of the TES. Most science missions are like this. NASA pays for them and pays our salary, but we don't make a profit.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:07AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [111 ] Jim, I believe that the MGS Home Page shows where MGS is in the Solar System. If it doesn't, we should add it.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:08AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [112 ] Benjamin, The fuel is very cheap. (I don't know exactly how much)

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:09AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [113 ] Kriss, I spent a total of 10 years in college which gave me my Ph.D. - but they were all great years

Michael Encinal School: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:10AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [114 ] How long have you worked for NASA?

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [115 ] Kriss, I like Mars mainly because it is so similar to Earth. It has volcanos, channels, glaciers, sand dunes, polar cap, clouds, snow, wind, dust storms... Almost anything that is interesting here on Earth is on Mars - and it is just waiting to be discovered.

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:11AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [116 ] Michael. I've worked for NASA since I got out of college in 1981.

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:13AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [117 ] EVERYONE: Thank you very much for joining us today. And a special thank you to you Phil for taking the time out of your busy schedule. We hope to be reading one of your journals soon!

phil/nasa: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:14AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [118 ] Goodbye everyone, I hope to talk to you again soon. Phil

Sandy/NASA Chat Host: . . . . Wed, Feb 5, 10:15AM PDT (-0700 GMT). . . [119 ] See everyone next Tuesday for another chat!


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