NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS
U.S. ANTARCTIC PROGRAM
YOUR STAY AT McMURDO STATION ANTARCTICA
Prepared by Antarctic Support Associates
Listing of Contents
YOUR STAY AT McMURDO
McMurdo Station is Antarctica's largest community. Established in 1956,
it has grown from an outpost of a few buildings to a complex logistics
staging facility of more than 100 structures. Winter population is about
250 persons; summer population reaches 1000. McMurdo includes a "downtown"
area, science and support facilities, and an outlying airport (Williams
Field), plus a blue ice runway and a summer runway on the sea ice. Before
December, the sea-ice runway is used for wheeled landing and take-off
of fixed-wing aircraft. After December, runway facilities are transferred
to ski-equipped operations at Williams Field. At the end of the season,
redeployment flights take off and land at the blue ice ("Pegasus") runway.
From Williams Field and the ice runways, flights not only span the continent,
but maintain McMurdo's contact with New Zealand and the United States.
You will find that McMurdo Station resembles an urban center in its
population diversity and hectic pace. Like major cities, McMurdo serves
as an international center where people of different backgrounds meet
and exchange ideas. Two miles away is the neighboring New Zealand research
facility Scott Base.
This booklet is intended to answer questions most frequently asked by
participants in the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) upon their arrival at
McMurdo. As this publication cannot address everything you will need to
know about your stay on the ice, briefings may be held in the continental
U.S., New Zealand, and McMurdo.
As you read this booklet, make notations of anything about which you
have questions and bring them up during your briefing. It is also strongly
recommended that you read the USAP Personnel Manual and the Survival in
Antarctica publication given to all participants. These contain important
information not covered in this pamphlet. Wherever general information
is provided, there likely will be additional detailed information on bulletin
boards in the USAP quarters. For example, operating hours of various facilities
and activities will be posted.
The Chalet, Building 167, was erected during the 1969-1970 summer. It
is the USAP administration and operations center and houses the offices
of the Senior U.S. Representative in Antarctica, the National Science
Foundation (NSF) Representative, and senior management of the support
contractor, Antarctic Support Associates (ASA). The Chalet has a conference
area and a meeting room for presentations and official social gatherings.
A single-sideband radio for contact with South Pole Station and field
parties is also located in the Chalet as are satellite communication facilities.
Science groups will find message and mail slots located in the foyer.
The Chalet administrative staff is a point of contact for referral, information,
and assistance for the USAP community.
While ASA's Resident Manager and Senior Manager have offices in the
Chalet, most ASA-related functions are located in other work sites.
Building 77 houses the ASA personnel office. The division consists of
a Personnel Coordinator, a Finance Clerk, and a Human Resources Assistant.
Building 77 also has offices for the Housing Coordinator, the Passenger
Coordinator and for visiting personnel. ASA employees are encouraged to
contact the Personnel Office for human resource-, housing-, or travel-related
questions or concerns.
USAP SCIENCE FACILITIES
The new science facility, the Albert P. Crary Science and Engineering
Center (CSEC), dedicated on 5 November 1991, begins full operation of
all three "phases" during the 1994-95 season. The Crary Laboratory consists
of five "pods" in three "phases," comprising 46,500 square feet of working
area. The five pods support biological, earth science, atmospheric sciences
and a new aquarium under one roof.
The CSEC will house state-of-the-art equipment and facilities, including
a local area network (LAN) of computers connected to the Internet; telescience,
library, environmental, and microbiological rooms; a Faraday Cage; an
electronics workshop, a photographic darkroom, and freezers for processing
ice cores and other frozen specimens; a Radarsat Control Room; a Mount
Erebus seismic observatory; the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center
(AMRC); and penetrations through the roof to accommodate instruments such
as an Italian Lidar.
One office is dedicated for use by the NSF Science Representative, Antarctica.
Other laboratories and offices are dedicated to ASA specialists supporting
basic and applied research conducted in the McMurdo region, such as a
Science Technician, Analytical Chemist, Analytical Technician, as well
as the laboratory and computer operations support staffs.
The new facility replaces the outdated laboratory facilities, Eklund
Biological Center (EBC) and Thiel Earth Science Laboratory (TESL). The
Crary Laboratory will facilitate international polar research, educational
opportunities, and advancement of science and technology as USAP approaches
a new millennium.
A Recompression Chamber facility, Building 85, is located next to the
Dispensary and houses a chamber for the treatment of dive-accident patients,
carbon dioxide poisoning, gas-gangrene, and others where hyperbaric oxygen
therapy is indicated.
The Dive Locker, Building 144, houses research dive equipment and includes
an air compressor for filling tanks.
The Cosmic Ray Monitoring Laboratory is located along the road to Scott
Base. This laboratory houses the neutron monitoring equipment necessary
for the long-term observation and study of the cosmic ray flux.
The Arrival Heights Lab is located approximately two miles from McMurdo
near second crater and the Kiwi Earth Station. Researchers using this
laboratory investigate magnetospheric and ionospheric phenomena. They
also monitor ultra-violet radiation, and make ultra-violet spectroscopic
measurements as part of ozone depletion research. The laboratory and a
large area around the lab are OFF LIMITS to the public, because the experiments
located in this area are extremely sensitive to people walking and driving
around them. Please observe the posted signs.
An aquarium, Building 187, contains several tanks with marine organisms
from McMurdo Sound.
USAP SUPPORT FACILITIES
Science support facilities include the Mechanical Equipment Center (MEC),
Building 58, the Berg Field Center (BFC), Building 160, and a storage
Persons in the MEC issue and maintain snowmobiles, generator sets, gas-powered
ice augers, rock drills, chain saws, portable dive compressors, and 12V
batteries and battery chargers used by science groups. They also delegate
a fleet of "pool" pickups and tracked vehicles for use by the science
community. Those science groups requiring use of any equipment should
have made their request in the Support Information Packets provided by
ASA. Any revisions to the SIP request must be directed to the supervisor
of the MEC for rescheduling requests. Science groups may request training--well
in advance--for use and field maintenance of issued equipment.
The BFC issues food and equipment to field parties. Science equipment
is outfitted and gathered here before deployment to the field. A variety
of field safety training courses also are available with BFC personnel.
If you are planning to do field work, you will be advised as to which
courses best suit your needs.
ASA support staff use Building 173, located next to the BFC, as a storage
area. Specific science items also may be stored there. Arrange with the
BFC supervisor to use this space. In addition, the storage building is
the focal point of civilian cargo operations including retrograde cargo.
Housing facilities in McMurdo have improved greatly in recent years.
Those staying in McMurdo for a short time or moving frequently between
the field and town may be housed in Building 166 (The Hotel California)
and 188 (The Mammoth Mountain Inn) and, as space permits, in Dorm 209.
Most NSF personnel and some program guests live in Buildings 125 and 137.
Dorms 207 through 211, and the 600-series Jamesway buildings (the 9-Pack)
house most of ASA's staff. Civilians also will live in rooms on the first
floor of Building 155.
A point system assists in determining ASA housing assignments. Points
are assigned according to previous months on ice and position.
Particularly during periods from late October through early December
and from mid-January through early February, housing areas will be crowded.
Your patience will be required. Some programs operate 24 hours a day and
people will sleep during the day in various quarters. Housing is designated
as smoking or non-smoking and some dorm floors are designated quiet areas.
Please have consideration for your neighbors: respect the housing regulations.
During the winter, personnel are assigned housing in buildings designated
to remain open. These may include various dormitory facilities.
Fire: The danger of fire is always present and is always great. Be careful
about smoking, and do not smoke in bed! Check ashtrays and waste baskets
before leaving common-use areas for the night. Most buildings are equipped
with automatic fire alarm systems. In the event of FIRE call 3333, wait
outside for the fire-fighting party to arrive, and direct them to the
blaze. Call even if the alarm is sounding.
Medical Emergency: If someone is injured and requires immediate transportation
to the dispensary, call the ambulance at extension 2222. This is an emergency-only
number. Please wait for the ambulance and direct it to the injured person.
Facilities Problems: If you discover heat off in a building, a leaky
water faucet, or any maintenance problem that will result in damage to
a building or might cause a safety hazard, call the ASA trouble desk at
Vehicle Problems: If your vehicle will not start, or you encounter a
vehicle maintenance problem or an accident, call the Vehicle Maintenance
Facility at 2500 or the Trouble Desk @2555.
Located in Building 155, the dining facility offers cafeteria-style
dining and a lunch-time deli. Vegetarian selections are available at most
meals. With the exception of occasional specialty foods (lobster, for
example), portions are not supervised. Civilians may dine in either the
enlisted (E-Side) or officer (O-Side) section of the facility.
The Ship's Store carries a limited inventory of food items. Please note,
however, that NSF strongly discourages in-home cooking due to the extreme
fire hazard. In fact, appliances with an exposed heating element--hot
plates, for example--are expressly prohibited in personal quarters.
Most of you will be arriving at McMurdo during the busy austral summer.
A good source of information on upcoming activities is the scroll, a televised
message system. The scroll provides information about hours of service,
special events, opening and closing of temporary roads on the sea ice,
water supply changes, health and safety issues, movie schedules, and other
activities. Bulletin boards outside the dining hall also provide community
information, as do boards located in the living areas. Make a habit of
becoming familiar with these.
The following section outlines some of the services regularly available
- SHIP'S STORE: Items sold include toiletries, stationery, soda, electronics,
jewelry, food, tobacco, confectionery, cameras, film, and souvenirs.
However, stocks are limited and items such as film may not be available.
It is a good idea to bring your own personal supplies.
- POST OFFICE: It takes the Navy Post Office three to four hours to
sort mail from incoming flights. Mail for the ASA population and for
science groups is further sorted in the mail room located on the first
floor of Building 140. The mail flag will be flown from the top of Building
140 when mail is ready for distribution. While letter mail has a high
priority and is therefore allotted aircraft space on a routine basis,
package mail does not. Because delivery times can be excessive, USAP
participants should bring all critical personal items in their baggage
when they deploy.
- MEDICAL DISPENSARY AND HOSPITAL: Medical care is available year-round
in the Dispensary, Building 142. Sick-call hours are posted and emergencies
will be admitted anytime. A dentist is available during the summer for
dental emergencies. For medical emergencies, dial 2222.
- BARBER SERVICE: This service is free. For an appointment, call the
shop or sign the schedule posted on the Barber Shop door in Building
- CHURCH: Various services and activities are held according to schedules
published on the scroll. The Chaplain is available for consultations.
- LAUNDRY SERVICE: Washing machines and dryers are located in the living
quarters. In times of water shortage, the washing machines may be placed
out of service. Wool and other shrinkable materials and those with dyes
that run should be hand-washed. Please launder your own bed linen, which
is assigned to you for the duration of your stay. Complete procedures
will be posted in each building.
- RECREATION: The Navy-managed Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR)
department, in Building 63, has several recreational activities available
to everyone. These include a tape recording center, a work-out room
with weight lifting and exercise equipment, a bowling alley, a variety
of musical instruments for rent, cassette tapes and compact disks for
loan, and cross country skis, boots, and poles. The second floor also
houses a leather workshop and a ceramics shop.
A small gymnasium is located in Building 75 where basketball, racquetball,
and volleyball games may be held. Aerobics training takes place several
times a week, usually in the gym at announced times. The gym also
contains a climbing wall. Additional exercise equipment is located
in Building 78.
During the austral summer, science lectures will be held on most
Sunday evenings in the dining facility. The library in Building 155
contains a collection of polar books, some technical books, and a
great number of hard-bound and paper-back books. Video cassettes may
be checked out at the Trouble Desk and can be viewed on VCRs located
in several lounges.
Additionally, special events are scheduled throughout the season.
These may include the Scott's Hut foot race, a chili cookoff, talent
and other performance shows, an art show, bingo nights, and holiday
- CLUBS: The Navy operates three clubs at McMurdo Station. The Erebus
Club offers liquor, beer, and soft drinks--and several times a week,
a limited food menu. The Erebus is designated no smoking two or three
nights a week. The Southern Exposure is a smoke-free club where alcoholic
and non-alcoholic beverages are served. The Coffee House offers a smoke-free
setting and serves specialty non-alcoholic beverages.
- LIQUOR SALES: Personnel may purchase liquor and wine in the package
store in Building 155; beer may be purchased in Building. Alcohol purchase
is rationed. Ration cards, which must be obtained by those who want
to buy alcohol and who will be on the ice for more than 30 days, can
be obtained in the E-Side of the dining facility or in Building 63.
Please watch the scroll for the schedule. Weekly rationing is as follows:
one bottle of liquor or two bottles of wine or one case of beer. Field-party
groups may obtain their alcohol rations prior to deployment to the field.
The Chalet staff will assist with the proper forms and procedures.
- SHUTTLE SERVICE: During the summer, a regularly-scheduled shuttle
service is available for transportation to and from McMurdo, Scott Base,
Williams Field, and the ice runway. The shuttle system primarily serves
those with work-related transportation needs; folks wanting to travel
for personal reasons may be asked to debark if the shuttle becomes over-crowded.
- TROUBLE DESK: Located in Building 140, the ASA Trouble Desk is a main
point of contact for the McMurdo community. The Trouble Desk staff fields
information questions and maintenance or work requests, distributes
mail to the civilian community, files foot plans on personnel recreating
outdoors, and administers the videotape loan program. In summer, the
Trouble Desk usually remains open 24 hours a day.
McMurdo Station has the only large-production saltwater distillation
plant in Antarctica. Seawater is distilled at about 50,000 gallons per
day. Still, demand can easily outstrip supply during the busy summer season,
and mechanical problems and other unforeseen difficulties may curtail
water production significantly.
Therefore, all McMurdo residents must conserve water rigorously. During
normal operations, you may wash your clothing once a week and you may
take a shower every other day or as posted. Showers consist of no more
than two minutes of running water. Water faucets should not be left running
while washing hands and brushing teeth. Should a shortage occur, washing
machines may be placed out of service and showers may be restricted.
It is in everyone's best interest to practice water conservation continually.
The USAP employs Hercules (LC-130 and C-130), Starlifter (C-141), and
Galaxy (C-5) aircraft in airlift operations. The USAP maintains ice runways
and prepared skiways. During the summer, these planes fly between Christchurch,
New Zealand, and McMurdo, carrying passengers and cargo. C-141s and C5s
are wheeled jet aircraft and land only on the annual sea ice runway. Ski-equipped
Hercules aircraft (Hercs) and Twin Otters land on the ice runway or on
a prepared skiway in the open field. Depending on the time of year, both
types of runways are used for flights to South Pole Station, field camps,
and occasionally to other stations.
Regular intracontinental resupply flights carrying fuel, cargo, and
passengers, are scheduled several times a week, or more frequently, on
a turn-around basis. Aircraft remain at an inland station for the minimum
time necessary to unload fuel (usually about 20 minutes) and cargo (variable).
The flight schedule is published by VXE-6, the Navy's antarctic flight
squadron, and is posted late in the day on the LAN and in some USAP buildings.
The flight schedule includes intracontinental helicopter schedules and
fixed-wing flight schedules to, from, and within McMurdo for the following
All fixed-wing travel for ASA personnel is arranged through the Passenger
Coordinator located in the Observatory (Building 77). The Chalet staff
coordinates fixed-wing travel for the science community, distinguished
visitors, and the NSF.
The Helicopter Operations Coordinator in MAC Center schedules helicopter
use. If you request helicopter support, you will receive a booklet titled
"Helicopter Operations and Safety Guide" which contains information of
special importance to these operations.
Science parties needing to verify requests for air support can contact
the Helo Ops Coordinator or the Operations Coordinator in Building 58
(for fixed-wing requests). These personnel will ensure the request is
on the agenda for the next Air Operations Board meeting. Do not attempt
to arrange air support directly with VXE-6.
The Movement Control Center (MCC) coordinates cargo destined to arrive
at McMurdo, cargo for transhipment to inland stations, and retrograde
cargo. The Operations Coordinator facilitates cargo movement to inland
stations and return, sets priorities for the LC 130 flight schedule, and
publishes the Twin Otter Schedule.
Because of the nature of antarctic operations, flights are subject to
delays. Since weather conditions are so critical, decisions to fly are
often made on very short notice, and flight times may be advanced or delayed
several hours. The best way to stay informed is to keep in touch with
the Chalet or the appropriate Passenger Coordinator.
Upon arrival at McMurdo, scientists will be asked by the Chalet administrative
staff for desired redeployment dates to Christchurch, New Zealand, and
to the United States. It is necessary to keep the Chalet staff informed
of any changes so scheduling can be accomplished as needed. The Chalet
will also require details about ticketing and a complete itinerary 10
to 14 days prior to departure.
In conjunction with supervisors and the Resident Manager, the Passenger
Coordinator (located in the Observatory) will coordinate redeployment
for ASA personnel.
Flights from New Zealand to the United States become more crowded each
year. It has become increasingly difficult to change itineraries, particularly
during the December holiday season and the end-of-season redeployment
crush. While staff will make every effort to honor your requests, flight
schedules in McMurdo and Christchurch are likely to cause some changes
to your proposed itinerary. Please be flexible and patient.
When reporting for flights or upon arrival in McMurdo, use the transportation
provided for your flight. Unless specifically authorized, personnel are
not to drive out to the airfields to meet flights, as increased traffic
also makes landing operations more hazardous.
SPACE AVAILABLE AIR TRAVEL
The USAP recognizes the morale-boosting potential of space-available
travel to the South Pole; thus, several dedicated space-available flights
will be scheduled--operational requirements permitting. Seats will be
divided between the military and civilian population on a per capita basis.
Civilians will be selected by lottery and will be approved through the
Chalet. Note: do not board any aircraft unless your Supervisor and the
Chalet know and you have been properly manifested for the flight.
MOVEMENT CONTROL CENTER (MCC)
The MCC, Building 140, handles all antarctic cargo and passenger movements.
You will collect your bags here upon arrival at McMurdo, and report here
for all fixed-wing flights, including redeployment. Please note that the
MCC is extremely busy. The USAP Cargo Supervisor is your contact for cargo
concerns. In matters of travel, contact the proper coordinator in the
Building 77 or the Chalet.
The Cargo Supervisor must have completed retrograde log forms for each
piece of cargo bound for vessel retrograde prior to your departure from
McMurdo. If your equipment or data is time-sensitive and must travel by
air from Antarctica, approval from the NSF Representative is required,
and the cargo must be turned over to USAP Cargo 48 hours prior to the
desired flight. Documentation in the cargo system is imperative because
undocumented cargo entrusted to a friend, crewman, or an anonymous person
is cargo that most frequently goes astray and cannot be traced.
In the event of lost or stolen issued clothing sunglasses, the resupply
function of USAP Cargo in Building 58 should be notified.
Science groups who have identified their vehicle requirements in advance
can contact the MEC, Building 58, to check-out a "pool" vehicle.
Other pool requests are assigned according to priority. Since the MEC
receives many requests, vehicle check-outs are scheduled and reviewed
daily. Adherence to the schedule is greatly appreciated. Trips to Scott
Base, Williams Field, recreational excursions, social visits, etc., are
to be undertaken on foot or via the shuttle service.
You must have a valid driver's license and be checked out on vehicles
by personnel in Building 58 (Building 17 for ASA personnel) for operation
of any vehicle.
Building 58/Building 17 personnel who assign vehicles to you will brief
you on their operation. ASA recommends that you check the fuel, tires,
antifreeze, and engine oil and that you warm up the engine before use.
Vehicles left idling for long periods of time waste fuel and release pollutants
into the atmosphere, so please avoid this practice. When returning the
vehicle, please fill the tank to prevent moisture condensation, and report
any defects, however slight. Early diagnosis helps keep the vehicle from
costly, time-consuming major repairs.
A speed limit of 20 m.p.h. prevails in the narrow streets of McMurdo
with posted lower speed limits near Building 155. A limit of 20 MPH prevails
on the McMurdo-Williams Field snow road. As in any driving situation,
road conditions vary. Gear down when needed. In the vicinity of the helicopter
pad, Building 129, all operators must be familiar with instructions on
safe distances between vehicles and helicopters. These instructions and
authorization to enter the helo pad in vehicles must be obtained from
the helicopter maintenance personnel.
Weather conditions may cause travel restrictions between McMurdo, Williams
Field, Scott Base, and the ice runway. Please adhere to current radio
check-in and check-out procedures and obey MAC Center's instruction during
foul weather conditions. Radio check-in and check-out to MAC Center are
required for all vehicular travel to locations outside McMurdo other than
on roads directly to the runway facilities or to Scott Base and Williams
Field. The MEC Supervisor can provide full radio procedures.
An icebreaker, a fuel tanker, and a cargo ship (resupply vessel) arrive
at McMurdo each season during January and February. Other research vessels
and excursion ships may arrive during the course of the summer season.
Science field parties using ships for transportation must coordinate any
cargo or equipment movement through USAP Cargo, and the cargo must be
at the Ice Pier at least a day before sailing. All passengers using ship
transport should be prepared to board anytime up to 24 hours before scheduled
sailing time since rapidly changing weather and ice conditions influence
the ship's schedules. The Chalet will have current information on ship
Central Supply, upstairs in Building 140, provides common use items
for McMurdo such as office and cleaning supplies. Your contact for obtaining
these items is the Material Control Specialist in Central Supply.
Satellite and radio communications are monitored on a 24-hour basis
during the operational summer season. Field-party radio frequencies are
also under continuous surveillance for personnel safety. If, after 24
hours, no radio contact is made from or with a field party, Search and
Rescue (SAR) procedures may be initiated and an aircraft sent to locate
the party. If you are in the field, it is imperative that you make the
daily radio safety check-in required by ASA's Field Operations Communication
Center (FOCC), call sign MACOPS.
All requests for radio communications with Christchurch, New Zealand,
inland stations, field parties, and ships or planes must be cleared by
the appropriate USAP agency. Requests for official use of satellite communications
for data or voice services must have appropriate approval.
The primary mode of communications for McMurdo is provided by satellite
service. Incoming calls are routed as required, and windows for each agency's
business are scheduled. Emergency calls can be made any time the satellite
system is accessible. Personal phone calls can be paid for by purchasing
phone debit cards, calling collect, or by charging to a Visa or MasterCard.
An amateur radio facility, the Ham Shack, Building 186, is operated
by the U.S. Navy. It is staffed by qualified volunteers and is for the
community's use. When atmospheric conditions permit, the Ham Shack can
offer the opportunity to make a phone patch to family and friends in the
United States. Procedures and sign-up for the use of this service will
be posted on bulletin boards outside the dining facility and appropriate
Science groups, who have provided information regarding e-Mail/data
requirements in the Science Information Package (SIP), have access to
computers in the Crary Science and Engineering Center (CSEC), also known
as the Crary Lab. Internet Services are provided.
Although the satellite communications systems at McMurdo are very reliable,
service outages which affect voice and data communications can occur.
Computers throughout the McMurdo community are supported by Information
Systems. Support includes installation of new computers, repairs, software
training, and a help desk to assist with problems and to answer questions.
The help desk, open 24 hours per day, seven days per week, is the main
point of contact for computer- and software-related problems and is located
in Bldg. 133.
Computer support for the Crary Lab is provided by science support personnel
located on the 2nd floor of Phase 1 of the CSEC.
Fuel conservation is of primary importance. Scarcity of this product
and increased costs have a major impact on the operational program. Your
compliance with published antarctic energy conservation measures is required.
Keep room and building temperatures at a comfortable level (65 F or lower)
and turn off all unnecessary lights.
In 1990, McMurdo Station developed and implemented its first formal
recycling program. Since then, Waste Management has continuously upgraded
the program to maximize recycling efforts. During the 1993-94 season,
the USAP recycled 70% of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. The program
stands as a model for other communities and is a point of pride for the
Except for human waste, all waste generated by the USAP is removed from
Antarctica and returned to the United States for disposal. Because of
strict Federal and State regulations on this process, it is crucial that
waste be handled effectively.
The key to McMurdo's recycling program is careful source segregation:
as careless separation of waste in McMurdo can result in material being
unfit for recycling, it is everyone's responsibility to separate waste
effectively. You will be briefed on the details of McMurdo's recycling
program. Please be sure you gain a thorough understanding of your part
in the recycling process; make sure your questions are answered. With
a little practice, you'll find the separation of waste materials into
a myriad of containers will become second nature--a process you expect
to continue when you return to the world.
McMurdo Station is inhabited by people whose backgrounds are diverse,
but whose common mission in Antarctica is the continuation and advancement
of scientific research. As in any community, a distinct social structure
develops as a result of individual interests, goals, and associations.
The entire community has an opportunity to understand and appreciate
the purpose of its mission in Antarctica, an exchange of ideas and explanation
of science projects is highly encouraged. One means provided for this
exchange is the popular Sunday night science lecture series usually held
in the dining facility. Research scientists and their field parties are
encouraged to bring slides and other educational materials to Antarctica
for such events.