"Watch Your Attitude!"
Why? Aircraft operate in a three dimensional environment and movement takes place around one or more of three axes of rotation. To fly safely, you must be aware of your attitude.
Stability, maneuverability, and controllability all refer to movement of the aircraft about one or more of three axes of rotation.
Since an aircraft operates in a three dimensional environment, aircraft movement takes place around one or more of three axes of rotation. They are called the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical axes of flight. The common reference point for the three axes is the airplane's center of gravity (CG) , which is the theoretical point where the entire weight of the airplane is considered to be concentrated. Since all three axes pass through this point, you can say that the airplane always moves about its CG, regardless of which axis is involved. The ailerons, elevator, and rudder create aerodynamic forces which cause the airplane to rotate about the three axes. The simplest way to understand the axes is to think of them as long rods passing through the aircraft where each will intersect the other two. They intersect at the center of gravity. Each of these axes is also perpendicular to the other two.
When you deflect the ailerons to begin a turn, they create an immediate rolling movement about the longitudinal axis. Since the ailerons always move in opposite directions, the aerodynamic shape of each wing and the associated production of lift is affected differently. Picture the long rod running from nose tip to tail tip, and the roll movement is around that axis. The movement of the wing tips around the longitudinal axis is roll (one wingtip up and one wingtip down).
Since the horizontal stabilizer is an airfoil, the action of the elevator (or stabilator) is quite similar to that of an aileron. Essentially, the chord line and effective camber of the stabilizer are changed by deflection of the elevator. Movement of the control wheel fore or aft causes motion about the lateral axis. Typically, this is referred to as an adjustment to pitch, or a change in pitch attitude. This increases or decreases the angle of attack. Picture the long rod running from wingtip to wingtip through the CG and longitudinal axis. The movement around the lateral axis is pitch (nose up or down).
When you apply pressure on the rudder pedals, the rudder deflects into the airstream. This produces an aerodynamic force that rotates the airplane about its vertical axis. It turns the nose of the airplane either to the left or right. This is referred to as yawing the airplane. The rudder may be displaced either to the left or right of center, depending on which rudder pedal you depress. Picture the long rod (vertical axis) running from the top of the airplane down through the CG and other two axes. The movement around the vertical axis is yaw (nose left or right).
Finally, the total position of the aircraft relating to its longitudinal axis, its lateral axis, and its vertical axis is considered its attitude.
Example: An aircraft making a climbing left turn, as is often the case to leave the traffic pattern when taking off, may have an attitude of 30 degrees bank (longitude axis), 12 degrees angle of attack (pitch or lateral axis), with 20 degrees left yaw (vertical axis).
Try "Watch Your Attitude!" Project to understand more about the three axes of rotation and their movements, roll, pitch and yaw.
Purpose: To demonstrate the three axes of rotation and the movements (roll, pitch and yaw) of an airplane around those axes.
You are now free to move your airplane about its three axes. For demonstration purposes, just do one axis at a time until you become familiar with the movements. Continue on to your "Demonstration Flight".
You are working in pairs, taking turns as CFI (Certified Flight Instructor) and as Student Pilot. All pilots record every flight in their Logbook, a small 8" X 5" book in which the page headings are like: Date, Aircraft model, Aircraft Identification Number, Points of Departure and Arrival, Remarks, etc. As a student pilot the "Remarks" is where your CFI enters the lessons you have learned and they sign their full name and CFI Certificate number. You will be provided a Logbook page to use for this lesson. Look for other lessons in which you can get signed off also.
Remember, you are taking turns being CFI and student. CFI's may use any important number as a certificate number. If your student does not do it right, instruct them, and repeat the step. This particular lesson is not actual flight time, but it is just as important, so go ahead and log it. It would be considered part of ground school. Good Luck!
Teacher Tips - #1-9 is practice and should have students in partnerships to help each other become familiar with seeing aircraft in relationship to horizon. (This is probably the single most important thing a flight student must learn. Eyes out the cockpit instead of on instruments 90% of the time.) Your role should be to monitor this and reinforce what "straight and level" looks like. After each maneuver, return to straight and level.
#2-9 needs a cardboard adjustable angle to use as a guide for putting the aircraft into its attitude. This can be made from a folder, two strips, 1" by 6" is sufficient with strong paper clips to hold them in place. Teacher should demonstrate these against a protractor for the first one, and then how to hold it to set up the aircraft. Arm should be extended straight out at time of assessment. It take a little practice. The partners can either each do them all or take turns doing them. This should be monitored pretty closely at first. Let kids that grasp this right away help others.